Tag Archives: Modern C++

Making things do stuff – Part 9

Glennan Carnie

Glennan Carnie

Technical Consultant at Feabhas Ltd
Glennan is an embedded systems and software engineer with over 20 years experience, mostly in high-integrity systems for the defence and aerospace industry.

He specialises in C++, UML, software modelling, Systems Engineering and process development.
Glennan Carnie

Latest posts by Glennan Carnie (see all)

As a final instalment in this series on hardware manipulation I thought I’d revisit read-only and write-only register types.

Using tag dispatch is not the only way to solve the read- or write-only Register problem.  For completeness let’s explore two other alternatives – SFINAE and constexpr if.

For these examples I’m going to use a simplified version of our Register class.  I’m ignoring the bit proxy class and using a reduced API.  Once understood, the techniques below can be applied to these […]

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Making things do stuff – Part 2

Glennan Carnie

Glennan Carnie

Technical Consultant at Feabhas Ltd
Glennan is an embedded systems and software engineer with over 20 years experience, mostly in high-integrity systems for the defence and aerospace industry.

He specialises in C++, UML, software modelling, Systems Engineering and process development.
Glennan Carnie

Latest posts by Glennan Carnie (see all)

Last time we looked at the basics of hardware manipulation in C++.   This time we’ll apply this to some real hardware and have a look at the code

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Great Expectations

Glennan Carnie

Glennan Carnie

Technical Consultant at Feabhas Ltd
Glennan is an embedded systems and software engineer with over 20 years experience, mostly in high-integrity systems for the defence and aerospace industry.

He specialises in C++, UML, software modelling, Systems Engineering and process development.
Glennan Carnie

Latest posts by Glennan Carnie (see all)

Previously, we’ve looked at the basic concepts of function parameter passing, and we’ve looked at the mechanics of how parameters are passed at the Application Binary Interface (ABI) level.

Far too often we focus on the mechanisms and efficiency of parameter passing, with the goal: if it’s efficient then it’s good; that’s all there is to it.  In this article I want to move past simple mechanics and start to explore function parameter design intent – that is, what can I […]

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Becoming a Rule of Zero Hero

Glennan Carnie

Glennan Carnie

Technical Consultant at Feabhas Ltd
Glennan is an embedded systems and software engineer with over 20 years experience, mostly in high-integrity systems for the defence and aerospace industry.

He specialises in C++, UML, software modelling, Systems Engineering and process development.
Glennan Carnie

Latest posts by Glennan Carnie (see all)

“Do, or do not; there is no ‘try’.”

Previously, we’ve looked at The Rule of Zero which, in essence, says: avoid doing your own resource management; use a pre-defined resource-managing type instead.

This is an excellent guideline and can significantly improve the quality of your application code. However, there are some circumstances where you might not get exactly what you were expecting. It’s not that the code will fail; it just might not be as efficient as you thought.

Luckily, the solution is […]

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Bitesize Modern C++: using aliases

Glennan Carnie

Glennan Carnie

Technical Consultant at Feabhas Ltd
Glennan is an embedded systems and software engineer with over 20 years experience, mostly in high-integrity systems for the defence and aerospace industry.

He specialises in C++, UML, software modelling, Systems Engineering and process development.
Glennan Carnie

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In a C++ program it is common to create type aliases using typedef. A type alias is not a new type, simply a new name for an existing declaration. Used carefully, typedef can improve the readability and maintainability of code – particularly when dealing with complex declarations.

In C++11 typedef can be replaced with a using-alias. This performs the same function as a typedef; although the syntax is (arguably) more readable. A using-alias can be used wherever a typedef could be […]

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Bitesize Modern C++: nullptr

Glennan Carnie

Glennan Carnie

Technical Consultant at Feabhas Ltd
Glennan is an embedded systems and software engineer with over 20 years experience, mostly in high-integrity systems for the defence and aerospace industry.

He specialises in C++, UML, software modelling, Systems Engineering and process development.
Glennan Carnie

Latest posts by Glennan Carnie (see all)

What’s the value of a null pointer?

0
NULL
NUL

No doubt you’ve been involved in the (always heated) discussions about which is the correct one (By the way, if you said NUL you need to take yourself to one side and give yourself a stern talking to).

The arguments tend to go something like this:

0 is the only ‘well-known’ value a pointer can be set to that can be checked.
NULL is more explicit than just writing zero (even though it is just a […]

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Bitesize Modern C++: enum class

Glennan Carnie

Glennan Carnie

Technical Consultant at Feabhas Ltd
Glennan is an embedded systems and software engineer with over 20 years experience, mostly in high-integrity systems for the defence and aerospace industry.

He specialises in C++, UML, software modelling, Systems Engineering and process development.
Glennan Carnie

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Enumerated types in C++ give a trivial simulation of symbolic types – that is, objects whose instances have unique, human-readable values. In C++ enumerations are essentially named integers that are either assigned values implicitly by the compiler or explicitly by the programmer (or a combination of both)

C++ enum types inherit their semantics from C with some additions:

enum objects are now first-class types
enums may be implicitly converted to integers; but the reverse is not true

Another characteristic illustrated in the […]

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Bitesize Modern C++ : static_assert

Glennan Carnie

Glennan Carnie

Technical Consultant at Feabhas Ltd
Glennan is an embedded systems and software engineer with over 20 years experience, mostly in high-integrity systems for the defence and aerospace industry.

He specialises in C++, UML, software modelling, Systems Engineering and process development.
Glennan Carnie

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C’s assert library is a useful tool for catching invalid invariants (conditions that must hold true in order for your system to operate as specified) in your program. The big problem with assert is that it’s a run-time check; in many cases the best you can do  to recover from an assert failure is restart the system or put it into a quiescent state.

In a lot of cases the (faulty) invariants could be detected at compile-time but in C++98 there […]

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Bitesize Modern C++ : constexpr

Glennan Carnie

Glennan Carnie

Technical Consultant at Feabhas Ltd
Glennan is an embedded systems and software engineer with over 20 years experience, mostly in high-integrity systems for the defence and aerospace industry.

He specialises in C++, UML, software modelling, Systems Engineering and process development.
Glennan Carnie

Latest posts by Glennan Carnie (see all)

A constant expression is an expression that can be evaluated at compile-time. The const qualifier gives a weak guarantee of a constant expression – a const-qualified type may not be changed after initialisation but that does not guarantee it will be initialised at compile-time. For example:

C++11 introduces a strong form of constant expression, constexpr, which also expands the capabilities of compile-time evaluation.

constexpr objects

A constexpr variable is essentially the same as qualifying the type as const with the additional requirement that […]

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Bitesize Modern C++ : auto

Glennan Carnie

Glennan Carnie

Technical Consultant at Feabhas Ltd
Glennan is an embedded systems and software engineer with over 20 years experience, mostly in high-integrity systems for the defence and aerospace industry.

He specialises in C++, UML, software modelling, Systems Engineering and process development.
Glennan Carnie

Latest posts by Glennan Carnie (see all)

C++ is a statically-typed language, that is, you must explicitly declare the type of every object before use. The type of an object specifies

The amount of memory occupied
How the memory (bits) is interpreted
The operations allowable on the object

An object’s type is fixed at declaration – unless the programmer chooses to circumvent the type system using a cast.

Often for C++ objects specifying the type can be onerous:

C++11 allows automatic type-deduction to simplify the creation and maintenance of code.

The […]

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