Category Archives: Cortex

Test Driven Development (TDD) with the mbed

Niall Cooling

Director at Feabhas Limited
Co-Founder and Director of Feabhas since 1995.
Niall has been designing and programming embedded systems for over 30 years. He has worked in different sectors, including aerospace, telecomms, government and banking.
His current interest lie in IoT Security and Agile for Embedded Systems.

One of the most useful fallout’s from the acceptance of Agile techniques is the use of Test-Driven-Development (TDD) and the growth of associated test frameworks, such as GoogleTest and CppUTest, etc.

I won’t get into the details of TDD here as they are well covered elsewhere (I recommend James Grenning’s book “Test Driven Development for Embedded C” for a good coverage of the subject area), but the principle is

Write a test
Develop enough code to compile and build (but will fail the test)
Write the application code […]

Posted in ARM, C/C++ Programming, CMSIS, Cortex, Testing | 4 Comments

Rehosting ARMCC for the mbed with CMSIS-DAP

Niall Cooling

Director at Feabhas Limited
Co-Founder and Director of Feabhas since 1995.
Niall has been designing and programming embedded systems for over 30 years. He has worked in different sectors, including aerospace, telecomms, government and banking.
His current interest lie in IoT Security and Agile for Embedded Systems.

In this posting I will look at porting the C standard library output (e.g. puts / printf ) to use a UART rather than the default ARM/Keil semihosting.

In my last post, I looked at getting basic user I/O out from a native-mbed via UART0 to a terminal emulator (e.g. Tera Term). This was driven by the fact that, currently, neither printf (via semihosting) or ITM_SendChar do not function on the mbed. Unfortunately, my solution uses a propriety API, such as init_serial0 and putchar0, […]

Posted in ARM, C/C++ Programming, CMSIS, Cortex | 3 Comments

User I/O from mbed with CMSIS-DAP

Niall Cooling

Director at Feabhas Limited
Co-Founder and Director of Feabhas since 1995.
Niall has been designing and programming embedded systems for over 30 years. He has worked in different sectors, including aerospace, telecomms, government and banking.
His current interest lie in IoT Security and Agile for Embedded Systems.

Following on from my last posting regarding using native C/C++ on the mbed I have found that I currently cannot get output via the standard CMSIS ITM_SendChar function as used in the Cortex-M hard fault handler (I am currently in dialog with the guys at ARM trying to resolve this).

In the standard mbed environment, the mbed can communicate with a host PC through a “USB Virtual Serial Port” over the same USB cable that is used for programming using printf(), e.g.

#include “mbed.h”
int […]

Posted in ARM, C/C++ Programming, CMSIS, Cortex | 3 Comments

Native C/C++ Application development for the mbed using CMSIS-DAP

Niall Cooling

Director at Feabhas Limited
Co-Founder and Director of Feabhas since 1995.
Niall has been designing and programming embedded systems for over 30 years. He has worked in different sectors, including aerospace, telecomms, government and banking.
His current interest lie in IoT Security and Agile for Embedded Systems.

If you have been following the Feabhas blog for some time, you may remember that in April of last year I posted about my experiences of using the MQTT protocol. The demonstration code was ran the ARM Cortex-M3 based mbed platform.

For those that are not familiar with the mbed, it is an “Arduino-like” development platform for small microcontroller embedded systems. The variant I’m using is built using an NXP LPC1768 Cortex-M3 device, which offers a plethora of connection options, ranging […]

Posted in ARM, C/C++ Programming, CMSIS, Cortex | Tagged , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

Setting up the Cortex-M3/4 (ARMv7-M) Memory Protection Unit (MPU)

Niall Cooling

Director at Feabhas Limited
Co-Founder and Director of Feabhas since 1995.
Niall has been designing and programming embedded systems for over 30 years. He has worked in different sectors, including aerospace, telecomms, government and banking.
His current interest lie in IoT Security and Agile for Embedded Systems.

An optional part of the ARMv7-M architecture is the support of a Memory Protection Unit (MPU). This is a fairly simplistic device (compared to a fully blow Memory Management Unit (MMU) as found on the Cortex-A family), but if available can be programmed to help capture illegal or dangerous memory accesses.
When first looking at programming the MPU it may seem rather daunting, but in reality it is very straightforward. The added benefit of the ARMv7-M family is the well-defined memory […]

Posted in ARM, C/C++ Programming, CMSIS, Cortex, Testing | Tagged , , , | 8 Comments

Developing a Generic Hard Fault handler for ARM Cortex-M3/Cortex-M4

Niall Cooling

Director at Feabhas Limited
Co-Founder and Director of Feabhas since 1995.
Niall has been designing and programming embedded systems for over 30 years. He has worked in different sectors, including aerospace, telecomms, government and banking.
His current interest lie in IoT Security and Agile for Embedded Systems.

This posting assumes you that you have a working ARM Cortex-M3 base project in Keil uVision. If not, please see the “howto” video: Creating ARM Cortex-M3 CMSIS Base Project in uVision

Divide by zero error

Given the following C function

int div(int lho, int rho)
{
return lho/rho;
}

called from main with these arguments

int main(void)
{
int a = 10;
int b = 0;
int c;
c = div(a, b);
// other code
}

You […]

Posted in ARM, C/C++ Programming, CMSIS, Cortex | Tagged , , , | 22 Comments

Embedded System Conference – India

Niall Cooling

Director at Feabhas Limited
Co-Founder and Director of Feabhas since 1995.
Niall has been designing and programming embedded systems for over 30 years. He has worked in different sectors, including aerospace, telecomms, government and banking.
His current interest lie in IoT Security and Agile for Embedded Systems.

 

This year I have honour of being invited to present at the Embedded Systems Conference in Bengaluru (Bangalore), India. Based on previous visits these classes are very well attended and always generate a lot of post-class discussions.

This year I’ve extended my previous 1/2 day class to a full day titled “Programming in C for the ARM Cortex-M Microcontroller”. Having a full day allows me to delve in too much greater detail. The class is broken down in to four subsections:

Cortex-M Architecture
C […]

Posted in ARM, CMSIS, Cortex, General | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

Can existing embedded applications benefit from Multicore Technology?

Niall Cooling

Director at Feabhas Limited
Co-Founder and Director of Feabhas since 1995.
Niall has been designing and programming embedded systems for over 30 years. He has worked in different sectors, including aerospace, telecomms, government and banking.
His current interest lie in IoT Security and Agile for Embedded Systems.

It feels that not a day goes by without a new announcement regarding a major development in multicore technology. With so much press surrounding multicore, you have to ask the question “Is it for me?” i.e. can I utilise multicore technology in my embedded application?

However, from a software developer’s perspective, all the code examples seem to demonstrate the (same) massive performance improvements to “rendering fractals” or “ray tracing programs”. The examples always refer to Amdahl’s Law, showing […]

Posted in ARM, Cortex, Design Issues, General, Industry Analysis | Tagged , , , | 6 Comments

CMSIS-RTOS Presentation

Niall Cooling

Director at Feabhas Limited
Co-Founder and Director of Feabhas since 1995.
Niall has been designing and programming embedded systems for over 30 years. He has worked in different sectors, including aerospace, telecomms, government and banking.
His current interest lie in IoT Security and Agile for Embedded Systems.

I have finally finished and sent off my presentation for next weeks Hitex one-day ARM User Conferences titled “ARM – the new standard across the board?” at the National Motorcycle Museum in Solihull.

Back in February, at the embeddedworld exhibition and conference in Nuremberg, Germany, ARM announced the latest version (version 3) of the Cortex(tm) Microcontroller Software Interface Standard (CMSIS). The major addition is the introduction of an abstraction layer for Real-Time Operating Systems (RTOS).

The presentation I’m giving explains; what […]

Posted in ARM, CMSIS, Cortex, General, RTOS | Tagged , , | 4 Comments