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Change Management

June 13th, 2011

Glennan Carnie

Technical Consultant at Feabhas Ltd
Glennan is an embedded systems and software engineer with over 20 years experience, mostly in high-integrity systems for the defence and aerospace industry.

He specialises in C++, UML, software modelling, Systems Engineering and process development.

Latest posts by Glennan Carnie (see all)

Change Management is concerned with the proposal, selection and scheduling of changes during the lifecycle of a project.

Change Management is interlinked with, but separate to, Revision Control.

Change Management is the core to controlling your development processes. Without effective Change Management the management of your project is subject to slavish adherence to a (fixed, and pre-determined) project plan, with no mechanism for dealing with inevitable changes in requirements, design, implementation or testing.

It is no surprise that Change Management is at the heart of so many Agile process, such as SCRUM.

Change Request

The core of Change Management is the Change Request (often abbreviated simply as CR) A Change Request has many different names, all meaning the same thing:

  • Change Note (CN)
  • Engineering Change (Order)
  • Engineering Change Request (ECR)
  • Action Request (AR)
  • Request For Change (RFC)

Essentially, a Change Request is a call for an adjustment to a system. Change requests typically originate from one of five sources (Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden, 2002):

  • Bugs that must be fixed
  • System enhancement requests from users
  • Events in the development of other systems
  • Changes in underlying structure and or standards
  • Demands from senior management


The CR Artefact

A CR is a project artefact – that is, it is a entity that is created, worked on, stored and audited, just like every other artefact in the system. The CR represents the lifecycle of a change. As such it has a different lifecycle to other artefacts.

As an artefact the CR may (in fact, should) also be held under revision control.

The CR lifecycle is shown in Figure 19. There are three main parts to the lifecycle.



Figure 19 – The Change Request is an artefact with its own unique lifecycle

Opening the CR

Creating a CR records that some change to the system is requested; it does imply that the work will be performed. Once created the change must be reviewed before it can be worked on. The review is performed by the Change Control Board (CCB). The CCB consists of stakeholders who will be affected by the change, and those who can decide whether the change is worth doing. At the minimum this will be the Project Manager or Team Leader; but may include a multi-disciplinary group including engineering, senior management, marketing, customer support, etc.

The CR must be assessed for impact to the project. This work should ideally be done by the CR submitter. Points considered during the assessment of a change request include:

  • Technical feasibility
  • Timescales
  • Customer expectation
  • Resource
  • Quality
  • etc.

The CR may be Accepted (Opened for working), Rejected (Infeasible or invalid) or Deferred (delayed; therefore inducing technical debt to the project)

Open CRs

Once opened project artefacts can be modified. Each artefact follows its own Configuration Item lifecycle (Figure 20). The CR records artefacts modified. Each artefact records the changes made in support of the CR.



Figure 20 – Each artefact modified under the Change Request follows its own change lifecycle
Including the change

The completed change should be reviewed again by the CCB. The purpose of the review is to assess whether the change is valid – That is, do the modifications made to the system correctly addresses the change requested? An invalid change will be rejected for rework.

Once accepted the change can be integrated into the product.


Change Management is often overlooked in CM. Change Management controls precisely what is going to change in the project and when. Without Change Management a project is running on ad hoc and unrecorded decisions by the development team or project manager and runs a serious risk of heading out of control.  Although the Change Management presented here involves project artefacts (CRs) many Agile processes adopt similar principles using techniques such as Product Backlogs and Feature Lists (SCRUM), which are organised by customer priority. These mechanisms are, in effect, simple Change Management processes.

Configuration Items

May 30th, 2011

Glennan Carnie

Technical Consultant at Feabhas Ltd
Glennan is an embedded systems and software engineer with over 20 years experience, mostly in high-integrity systems for the defence and aerospace industry.

He specialises in C++, UML, software modelling, Systems Engineering and process development.

Latest posts by Glennan Carnie (see all)

A Configuration Item (sometimes referred to as a Computer System Configuration Item, or CSCI) is an artefact (hardware and/or software) that has an end-user purpose – that is, it contributes, in some way, towards the attributes of a system or product, or the development processes followed to produce the system or product. A Configuration Item (CI) is an artefact that is treated as a self-contained unit for the purposes of identification and change control. For example:

  • Specifications
  • Design models
  • Source code
  • Make files
  • etc.

Configuration Item identification

Configuration identification is the process of identifying the attributes and procedures that define every aspect of a configuration item.

Configuration identification performs three distinct roles:

Uniquely identifying each Configuration Item.

CIs are the artefacts to be controlled under Configuration Management. Each CI must be uniquely identified by name, version (revision) and location (on the file system).

Establishing a change policy

The CI’s change policy defines how the artefact is revision controlled; and whether that control changes during the lifetime of the project.

Establishing a review policy

Ideally, every artefact should be reviewed. Configuration identification establishes how the artefact will be reviewed and when it will be reviewed.

Configuration Identification must be performed prior to establishing any revision control system. All CI attributes and policies must be recorded in the project’s CM plan.

Configuration lifecycles

Configuration lifecycles define how an artifact is checked into and out of the revision control system. The configuration lifecycle defines the ‘life’ of one particular change, as it applies to that artifact (c.f. Change Management, below). The lifecycle is typically shown as a state transition diagram.

For any real project of any complexity a number of lifecycles will be required. Also note, an artefact’s lifecycle may change through the lifetime of the project. This is defined by the artefact’s change policy.

Listed below are a number of common configuration lifecycles.

‘Archive’ lifecycle

Archive artefacts are configuration items that are simply stored in the CM system. Archive artefacts are never modified once they exist. For example, the binary (download) file for a particular release.



Figure 8 – The Archive lifecycle
‘Basic CI’ lifecycle

The ‘Basic’ CI lifecycle (Figure 9) is for artefacts that must be archive and may be modified over time. For example, the Compiler used on the project may be updated over the course of the project’s lifetime.


Figure 9 – the Basic lifecycle

In addition, this lifecycle is used for artefacts that have not yet been released (see Release Management, below). Such items should be stored in the project’s RCS repository (for completeness) and should have their modification history recorded but these items do not need to be subject to stringent review or quality checks before being checked in.

‘Reviewed CI’ lifecycle

A ‘Reviewed’ Configuration Item must pass a review (peer or formal) before it can be checked back in (Figure 10). For example, a Requirements Specification.

This lifecycle is sometimes known as a Document lifecycle.


Figure 10 – The Reviewed CI (or Document) lifecycle

Any artefact that has been released from development, or originates from outside the development department should be subject to this lifecycle.

‘Software CI’ lifecycle

The Software CI lifecycle (Figure 11) is an extension to the ‘Reviewed CI’ lifecycle (above). In addition to being reviewed, a software CI should also pass Static Analysis testing; and pass Unit (component) tests; before being checked in.



Figure 11 – The software item lifecycle.

The Software CI lifecycle can be implemented in environments that demand very high software quality, for example safety-critical applications.


To get the most out of your Revision Control System each project artefact must be defined, with its usage, review policy and, perhaps most importantly, its change policy. This information gives the developer the information needed when an artefact has to change – what is required and who must be involved. Having effective configuration identification in place also ensures that the project’s artefacts retain their quality (at whatever level that quality is set)

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